Wednesday, October 05, 2016
RubyConf 2015 - How does Bundler work, anyway? by Andre Arko
So, this talk is called How does Bundler work, anyway?
and it basically came from
realizing as I talked to people
that a lot of people are like "Oh, I know how Bundler works.
You copy and paste this line from RubyGems or ReadMe
and then you run bundle install, that's how Bundler works.
So it turns out that if what you care about is like,
what's happening when those things happen,
you actually have to understand what the problem is
that Bundler solves, and to understand the problem
that Bundler solves, you have to understand
the problem that created the problem that Bundler solves,
and then you have to understand what created that problem,
and then what created that problem,
so this is going to be a brief history
of dependency management in Ruby,
hopefully brief, but before I tell you
about how dependencies have worked forever,
let me quickly tell you who I am.
My name is André Arko, on the internet
I'm pretty much always indirect,
that's my current avatar on all the internet things,
you may have seen my picture on a website or something.
I work for Cloud City Development,
mostly joining teams who could use
someone who has seen
how that decision can go wrong
and can warn you to avoid it.
Also, pairing with people who are like,
junior and midlevel and talking about how Ruby works.
If your team could use one of those people,
maybe talk to me later.
I co-authored the third edition of The Ruby Way.
It- the first edition of The Ruby Way
was totally my favorite Ruby book ever in like, 2001
and I basically learned Ruby from it,
and so The Ruby Way third edition is updated
for Ruby 2.2 and 2.3, and I'm sure it'll last
at least a good six to nine months
before it just turns into something you use
to prop up your monitor.
The other thing that I do is called Ruby Together,
it's a nonprofit.
It's kind of like NPM except we don't have
any venture capitalists and basically,
we take money from companies and people who use Ruby
and we pay developers to work on projects
that everyone who uses Ruby needs to have work.
So we have some- some companies
have just agreed with us that this is a good idea,
including Stripe and New Relic and Basecamp
and what Ruby Together does is it pays for work
on things like RubyGems, and the RubyGems.org server
that everyone gets gems from, and Bundler.
So I've been the team lead for Bundler
for about four years,
and that's why I'm talking to you
about Bundler today.
So, let's share some Ruby code.
How hard is it to use code written by someone else?
Well, it's actually pretty easy,
you just put this thing in your Gemfile,
and then you run Bundle install,
and then you run bundle exec, and ta-da!
So, that was so easy, but what actually just happened
when you did that?
Well, it's complicated.
Something got installed, something got downloaded,
what got downloaded, where did it go,
how did you get to it later, I don't even know.
So, history time.
Let me take you on a little dependency history tour,
but, by the time we finish, you'll at least know, you know,
not just how it works, but why it works
the way that it does today, and as you could maybe predict
from anything that involves computers,
the answer is legacy reasons.
(audience member laughs)
So, starting, here's a little preview
of what I'm gonna talk about.
I'm gonna talk about require, which is how
Ruby lets you load code from files,
then we'll get setup.rb which was the first way
that you could install code into Ruby
so that you could require it without telling Ruby
where it was, and then we'll look at RubyGems
which was the first way to easily download
someone else's code, and then we'll look at Bundler,
which lets you have multiple gems
that all work at the same time.
The require method has been around
since at least 1997, which is the oldest Ruby code
that is actually in version control.
I went back and checked.
Presumably, require did not exist at some point,
but Matz wasn't using version control yet,
so I don't know when that happened.
Even though require is that old,
it can still be broken down into some pretty small concepts.
So, using code from another file,
in Ruby, at least, is basically the same
as copying and pasting the contents of that file
in place of the line that says require.
That's pretty straightforward.
So, you can actually implement
the require function yourself, naively,
with just, like, one line of code.
You say I have the path to a file,
I would like to read that file,
I would like Ruby to eval that file as if it was code.
I've implemented require.
So, as I said, a little naive.
You'll probably notice some problems
with that naive implementation,
so if you code require more than once,
your code will run multiple times,
this is usually bad, especially if your code, say,
creates a class, because or defines a constant,
or, you know, whatever.
So, it's actually not that hard to implement
a system that checks to see if you've
already required something.
I even got it to fit on a slide.
Global variables are usually pretty evil,
in this case, it's probably the only way to track
things that you've required that make sense,
so let's call that global variable loaded features,
for no reason in particular, and then you can see
that you basically just say "Hey, did I already do that?
That file name?
Well, if I didn't, go, if I did,
hey, we're done already, sweet."
Turns out Ruby provides a global variable
named loaded features that contains a list
of all the files that you've required,
(audience member laughs)
So, then the next problem that you may have already noticed
just from looking at this code is that
you have to pass absolute paths.
If you say require rails, it will say "There's not a file
So, that's probably okay if you know
where every single file on your entire machine is,
but I'm assuming that you don't want to have to know that
all the time, so the easiest way to allow requires
that aren't absolute is to just treat every file name
as if it's relative to the directory
that the program was started from.
That's really easy, but unfortunately it doesn't work well
if you want to require Ruby files from multiple directories,
so let's implement something that lets us require
from more than one directory.
I guess, theoretically that would probably
look something like a global variable that's an array
that contains a list of directories,
and then you would loop over the list of directories,
seeing if the file that's being required
is present in any of those directories,
I even got that code to fit on a slide.
So we'll call that global variable load path
for no particular reason, and then we'll say
"Hey, let's just find the first entry and load path
that actually contains the file that we're requiring.
And then we'll do the normal eval thing."
So, it turns out Ruby provides a global variable
named load path, and when you call require,
iterates over the load path, looking for the file
that you just tried to require in each of the directories
contained in the load path.
Now you know how require works.
In real Ruby, unlike my slides,
both the loaded features feature
and the load path feature are combined into a single method.
I couldn't get that to fit on a slide,
but you're- feel free to do it yourself, if you would like.
So, adding a load path is pretty cool.
It lets us find Ruby libraries, even if they're
spread across multiple directories.
We can add a directory that has
the Ruby Standard Library in it,
and now it's very easy to load that http,
just say require that slash http
and it finds that there's a directory named net,
and there's a file named http.rb and it works!
So, this was awesome, and then redevelopers said
"Hey, I wrote some code, but someone else wants to use it."
And that's how we got setup.rb.
So require, state of the art and Ruby libraries,
probably circa the year 2000, right,
from '97 to 2000, require was good enough.
And around 2000, everyone's installing shared Ruby code
by saying "Oh, this guy, he emailed me the Ruby file
and then I put it in a load path and then I required it
and everything's awesome."
That's really tedious, as you can probably imagine
if you're thinking about sending people files
so that they can copy them into places.
So, the next piece, or, I guess, the next solution
to the obvious problem is called setup.rb,
it was written by Minero Aoki, and it's a script
that automates copying Ruby files
into a specific place,
so in Ruby, when you install a copy of Ruby,
it creates a place called... wow, now I'm blanking on it,
Thanks, I was gonna say site features
and I knew that was wrong.
So site lib is where you can install things
and they'll automatically be on the load path.
Ruby just puts site lib on the load path
and you can put whatever you want into that directory.
So setup.rb is a way to automatically put things
into that site, site, which is a really weird way
to describe a specific insulation of Ruby, but it works.
So, amazingly, setup.rb is actually still around
on the internet, I love the website,
it's actually i.loveruby.net.
You can even download it if you want to use it.
But no one has touched it since about 2005,
so I probably wouldn't recommend it.
So, at its core, setup.rb is basically a Ruby implementation
of the, like, classic Unix trinity of commands
configure, make, make install, except for Ruby files.
So you have setup, config, install.
And so moving forward in time,
this is now how you use Ruby libraries.
You find a cool library, you download the library,
you untar the library, you see the end of the directory
that you just untarred and then you run Ruby setup.rb all,
and it copies the Ruby files into your site lib
and now you can require them, and everything's great.
So, as you - oh, actually.
So this was before rubygems.org.
And there was a thing called the Ruby application archive,
which is sadly lost to the internet
as of a year or two ago.
But it was amazing.
This is about when I started using Ruby for the first time,
and I was so excited that there was a website
that I could go to that was like,
"Here are things that people have written in Ruby
that already do stuff so you don't have to
write them yourself."
Without the RAA, and honestly even after the RAA existed,
sometimes using libraries meant happening to be able
to find the person who wrote the thing's website
where they had posted a tar ball
that had their Ruby code in it.
So, this was great.
You could find a library, you could download it,
you could install it, it's pretty- it was a big improvement.
You may have thought of some possible problems with this
so far, so a big thing (laughs)
that became problematic as time went on
was there's no versioning whatsoever.
What version of that library do you have?
Maybe they put it in a comment.
If they didn't put it in a comment,
you could just start downloading old versions
and trying to guess.
It was amazing.
How do you update when there's a new version?
Well, you hope that you bookmarked the url
where you downloaded it the first time.
Or that they put the URL in a comment, because good luck.
And then you had to, to find the new version,
download it, decompress the tar ball,
and run Ruby setup.rb again.
And then you'd have the new version.
But since there was no uninstall,
what you would actually have is the files
from the old version and then the files from the new version
copied on top of the files from the old version,
and then the next time you'd have
the files from that version copied on top of the files
from the old version so you also crossed your fingers
and hoped really hard that they hadn't deleted any files
as part of the new version, because that got really messy
And finally, this was kind of my favorite part
of how this was horrible: all of the files
went into a single directory.
So, if you had two libraries that both defined
cool thing.rb, too bad.
Whichever library you installed last
was the one that overwrote the pervious library.
So, I don't know if this sounds tedious to you,
it was pretty tedious, I was there,
it took a lot of time, there was no really good way
to know if new versions came out,
you overwrote your old versions with new versions
or your new versions with old versions by accident,
and honestly, if someone changed something in a new version,
and you were like "Oh, I want this cool new thing
that's in the new version, but then you installed it
and something was different, then every single Ruby script
that you had on your machine that needed the old version
no longer worked, and you had no idea
if that was gonna happen or not.
So that was also kind of frustrating.
So, in 2003, RubyGems appeared
and specifically tried to address the shortcomings
So, it provided a single command line utility,
the gem command, which was pretty awesome.
It let you download and install in a single command,
which was pretty awesome.
It let you uninstall in a single command,
which was very awesome.
And it let you see what libraries existed
in a single, centralized place, which was super super great.
This was totally, this really revolutionized sharing code
and Ruby, honestly, like it increased the speed
at which people were willing to say
"Hey, this thing is cool, I'll let other people use it"
and it was actually a big part of why
I thought Ruby was so cool as I started using it,
because RubyGems was brand new at the time,
and I was like "Wow, like no one's written things
that do lots of things that could be useful,
I'll sit down with my friends and write a thing
that does a thing and it'll be great, and we'll make a gem,
and it'll be super cool."
The last, most awesomest thing that RubyGems added
was multiple versions.
So, setup.rb put everything in the same directory,
and it was impossible to tell what version you had,
and it was impossible to have more than one version
at the same time.
RubyGems actually adds its own patches to the require method
so that you can have multiple versions of a single gem
installed at the same time.
If no version of that gem has been added
to the lib path yet, RubyGems will add the newest version,
but if you want to, you can explicitly say
"No no, I actually want this exact version, RubyGems,
put that version on the load path
because that's the one I need.
So you can call the gem method with a version,
and RubyGems will put that version on the load path
and then recall require, that's the version you'll get.
It's pretty great.
And there's a little known RubyGems feature
slash horrifying hack that lets you put a version
in underscores as the first argument,
and then you'll get that version of the gem.
I don't know if that's really relevant
to any of your particular lives, but, well,
debugging gem versions in Bundler dependency hell,
sometimes it's important.
(audience members and André laugh)
So I care a lot that it exists, thank you Erik.
So, RubyGems made it installing, upgrading, creating,
using gems so easy, there was this huge explosion
So, today, there are almost a hundred thousand
different gems, and there are almost a million versions
of those hundred thousand gems.
This is really cool.
As you may have noticed by now,
somewhat predictably, once we started using this,
we noticed some problems.
The new problems were: what if you have
more than one project that uses Ruby
and needs gems?
So this turned into a big problem, I wanna say
over - it took, it took several years for this to, like,
emerge as this is clearly the biggest problem
So, the explosion of gems and gem versions
meant that if I ran gem install through
and started using it and then a week later
I wanted to share this with my friend and said
"Oh yeah, you have to run gem install foo
before this'll work, my friend might get
a completely different gem than the one that I got
when I ran gem install foo the week before.
And that's really not good.
(audience member laughs)
And then, if you ever wanted to deploy this into production
you would have to run gem install foo on the servers
and hope that you got
the same code cause... yeah.
So, setting up a new machine, this is a thing
that actually happened to me, I started at a Ruby company
in 2008, they said "Here's your new work laptop!"
We're really hoping that you'll get the app to boot
in less than a week.
(audience members laugh)
I was really ambitious, I worked really hard,
I was visiting the office and didn't really have anything
to do at night, I got it working in only three days.
I literally spent three days trying to boot the app
and then trying to diagnose what was missing
from the error message, and then installing gems,
and then trying to boot the app again,
and then trying to figure out why it didn't work.
Three days of that, it was pretty amazing.
once the Ruby community recognizes
this is a pain point, people started trying out
different ways to solve this problem.
The most popular way to solve this problem
was something that rails added called config.gem,
so you would put in your rails application
config.gem I need some gem with this-
and maybe with this specific version if you cared,
maybe you didn't.
And there was another gem called the gem installer gem,
that like, you wrote a list of gems and then
the gem installer gem installed all of them for you.
The underlying problem here was that -
well I guess it was (laughs) there were
multiple underlying problems.
The first underlying problem was that RubyGems
automatically uses the newest version of each gem,
and so just having an older version of a gem installed
wasn't actually enough for you to be able to use
the older version of the gem.
Also, a true story that actually happened to me:
three days of debugging why something worked
on every single developer's machine
but failed mysteriously in production,
turns out the production server had gem version 113
and every developer had 114.
There was no way to even be told that.
You just, at one point, someone was like
"Wait, could this possibly be" and ran gem list
on the server and was like "Oh my god,
this isn't the version that everyone else is using."
It also led to things like version conflicts.
Like, god forbid you have two rails apps,
rather than just one, or god forbid that you're a freelancer
and that you have two clients who each have a rails app,
because at some point they may not have the same version
of rails, and this is how you get into really,
really caring about that underscore hack that lets you get
a specific version of a single gem.
So, you have two rails applications,
you say "Oh no, this one's too old,
oh, I'll solve this problem by upgrading them
so that they're both on the newest version."
And then the next person who pull your code
is like "Hey, why did you break the app?"
And you're like, "Oh no, it's an upgrade,
you have to upgrade all your gems.
Run gem install again for all your gems.
Oh, well, I think the read me has a list.
Is the read me list up to date?
And then if that person had some third app that used Ruby
on their machine, they would be like
"Ah, well I guess I can solve this by upgrading
all of the apps, too."
And then you just repeat the cycle.
So, ultimately a large chunk,
and I am really not kidding,
a large chunk of being a Ruby developer
was like figuring out why your shit did not work
when gem versions did not match.
And it kinda sucked.
Just fixing (laughs) just fixing that problem
would be enough of a reason for Bundler to exist
but there was another, even more frustrating problem,
which is: you would ask RubyGems
to put- to,
I mean RubyGems calls it activating,
but what that actually means is RubyGems just puts that gem,
a specific version of a gem, in the load path
so that you can require it.
And then later on, some other piece of code says
"Hey RubyGems, I need this gem at this version"
and RubyGems would say "No, actually you can't have it,
because a different version already got activated
by some completely unrelated code, too bad.
Runtime error, your server no longer works."
It was super great, I've actually, oh man.
There was one time where our production server
worked perfectly fine unless someone tried to do
the one action that somehow, like,
depended on this gem, and it would always activation error
and then the server would die, but we had something
that automatically restarted the servers.
(André and audience members laugh)
So we didn't actually notice until
we were debugging the ticket about
why that particular rails action didn't actually work.
And then someone was like "Oh, it's an activation error.
Why didn't we know that?"
So, at this point, maybe you're thinking
"Surely this wasn't very common,
it sounds very complicated and difficult to produce this."
by the late RubyGems era,
so probably like 2008 to 2010,
basically every Ruby application
with more than a handful of gems
would get into this weird situation
where certain specific circumstances
would produce "Sorry, no you can't."
This was exacerbated by certain specific versions
like rails 2.3 depended on rack 1.0
and not higher,
and thin, which was a popular app server at the time,
depended on rack 1.1 or higher,
and if you needed them both at the same time, too bad.
So, the moral of activation errors
is not to do runtime resolution,
which is what RubyGems was trying to do,
where you say, "Oh, I'll just wait until the app
is already running, and then use the gems that I need,"
because by then it's too late.
And instead do install-time resolution,
which ultimately just means that
before you actually even install any of the gems,
you say "Hey, is it possible to make all these gems
activated at the same time?"
So, install-time resolution, hooray!
How does that actually work?
So this is the kind of underlying problem that Bundler has
as its core problem that it exists to solve.
How do you figure out which versions of all the gems
that you need actually work together?
Each gem depends on other gems,
those gems depend on other gems,
those, and et cetera, et cetera.
Before Bundler, as I have just described at sad length,
this process was done entirely by hand.
If your gems did not- if your versions
did not work together,
you said "Oh no, an exception,"
and then you tried a different version.
And then you said "Oh no, an exception,"
and then you tried a different version.
And then as soon as the exception stopped,
you went out for celebratory drinks.
So, unsurprisingly, computers are better than humans
at this kind of tedious and repetitive work, so.
That's what Bundler does.
Happily, Bundler is also, by virtue of
having the computer do it, a lot faster than humans.
So, thanks to Bundler, Ruby developers
list the gems that they want, and then Bundler finds
what versions of those gems work together
all at the same time.
This problem is called dependency graph resolution,
it's an example of dependency, I should say,
dependency graph resolution is an example
of a well-known hard problem, which is,
I guess another way of saying you might not ever
be able to find an answer, no matter how long you spend
looking for one, which is super great.
In theory, it is possible to construct a gem file
such that it takes until known hard problem-
numbers to find which gems to use.
This picture is a small piece of the graph
generated by a gem file that has nothing inside it
except gem rails.
(audience and André laugh)
To give you an idea of why Bundler
needs to do a lot of work.
So, most developers do not have until after
the heat death of the universe to find out if their gems
work together, so Bundler's resolver
uses a lot of tricks and shortcuts and heuristics
to try and come up with a list that will work
or is at least a possible solution even if it is not
necessarily the best possible solution,
and so we have a pretty big library of tricks
that we've built up over the years,
and most gem files actually now resolve
just within a few seconds.
We had, I think the last,
the last kind of pathological case
that we had was a gem file that took, like,
maybe a minute to resolve and we got it down
to ten seconds in the latest release,
and I think all of our, like, known horrifying gem files
are now down under ten seconds, so that's pretty cool.
Once it is found, versions that all work together
can be activated at the same time.
Bundler writes down the exact exact version
that works for every single gem
and that list is called Gemfile.lock,
and that's what makes it possible
to always install the same version.
When I give you a copy of the code,
or you give the production machines a copy of the code,
Amazingly, it means that the CI server
and the production machine and every developer
always have the same versions of every gem
and it means that most of the time,
the same code means that you get the same results,
which is great.
So, at the end of the day, how bundle-
how Bundler actually works boils down to
two things that mostly everything else
is just, like, some aspect of those two things.
So the one thing is, the first thing is bundle install,
which is figure out the versions of all the gems
that work together, download all those exact versions,
write down the lock file so that
we know what those exact versions are
and install all of those exact versions
so that they're available.
And then once they're all installed,
the second half of what Bundler does
is bundle exec, which basically just says
"Make sure that the Ruby code that I'm running
using bundle exec has access to
the exact versions that are written down in the lock file
and no other versions."
So, bundle exec reads the gem file,
and the lock if it's there, it uses the lock gems if it can,
if there are versions already installed that will work,
then it will make a new lock file on the fly,
and then it deletes everything that's in the load path
and puts only the gems that match the versions
that are in the lock in the load path,
and then lets your application do its requires,
and everything works out great, we hope.
Most people don't like bundle exec,
I mostly don't like it because I don't like typing it, so.
One solution, which is something that I did for a long time
is to just use your shell to just alias the letter b
to bundle exec and then you type b space before everything,
but another thing that you can do is create
commands that are specific to your application
and the version of the gem that you need
for that application.
Here's how you can avoid- completely avoid
using bundle exec.
Use the bundle binstubs command on the gem
that you want to run the specific command from,
and then Bundler will create a file in bin
that will make sure to only use the version
that is written in your lock, and so
this particular bin/rspec will use
the version of rspec that's in the lock
for this application, but if you have bin/rspec
in another application, it will use the version of rspec
that's locked for that application,
and so this is a way to get around bundle execing ever
and means that you always get the thing that's relevant
for your local application context.
Rails has actually sort of endorsed this pattern
by making it part of a default rails app
starting with rails four, bin/rails and bin/rake
are both created as part of every new rails app,
and if you run those commands,
you will always get the exact version of rails
and the exact version of rake that go with that application,
but you could do this for literally any code
with literally any gem using the bundle binstubs command,
which is pretty cool.
So, that gets you more or less up to the present day.
Even after Bundler was created, the pattern continues.
Bundler 1.0 solved activation errors, which was awesome,
and created a new problem, which was that
running bundle install took multiple minutes,
so to fix that, we created a new version of Bundler
that could download less information
but still resolve, that was Bundler 1.1.
We continue to work Bundler, we're up to Bundler 1.10,
it has some cool new stuff, we have even more,
cooler, newerer stuff in the planning stages,
we'll continue to keep making things better,
I definitely recommend keeping an eye on Bundler.io
where we have a news thing that talks about new things
as new versions of Bundler come out,
or you can follow Bundler.io on twitter,
as part of those plans, it would be super, super cool
if you could help us since everyone uses Bundler.
We would love your help.
You can tweet at bundlerio or you can email us
at email@example.com and there are people
on the Bundler team who set aside time
to pair with new contributors so that
you can get up and running and kind of
know what's going on, and we would love to have your help.
If you are a company and you're thinking to yourself
(laughs) if you are a company.
If you work at a company and you are thinking to yourself
right now, "That sounds great, except my company
doesn't have any spare time for me to work on Bundler,"
that's totally okay too, make your company
give money to Ruby Together, and then we will do it for you,
and you won't have to think about it.
As Ruby Together grows, we actually have plans
that extend beyond just Bundler,
we're going to start tackling other community issues,
we've been working on a project mostly in stealth mode
that's called gem stash, and it's a server
that you can run in your office or in your data center,
and it acts as a local cache for RubyGems,
so you can run gem stash in your data center
and point all of your productions servers at it,
and they can download and install the gems that they need
super fast, because they're already present
in the data center, or you can put it in your office,
and all of your developers in your office
can install gems super fast, because
they're already in the office, it'd be great.
We'll have the first release candidate of gem stash out...
(audience members laugh)
Yeah, it'll be great.
That pretty much wraps things up,
I'm happy to take questions, it looks like we have
about seven minutes for questions if people have any.
Given that this is Bundler, I may answer the question with
"I don't know, I'm sorry."
(audience member laughs)
So the question was "What are some of the interesting
heuristics that you use to reduce the amount of time
that it takes to solve the dependency graph problem?"
Most, I mean, none of them are actually that interesting,
to be honest, it's mostly just like
"Well, we come out with something
that finishes much faster
if we-" and the "if we" is things like
start with the newest version of everything,
if you have a specific version number,
start with that and go down from the newest
backwards in time, if you are way down a rabbit hole,
try going backwards and changing the version of the thing
that depends on the thing that depends on the thing
that means that you can't find a version that works.
Stuff like that.
So the question was,
"When do changes to Bundler become new releases?"
We last released probably four or five months ago,
at this point, and there have been some changes since then,
usually the answer is when we have enough time
to update all the documentation, write a blog post
about what's changed, and then answer people's new questions
because the new version always means that people
(audience member laughs)
The plan for 1.11 is sometime
in the next couple weeks, I hope.
So the question was, in Bundler 1.10,
it added a section to the lock file named bundled with,
this was really contentious with the minority of people
who actually pay attention to and care deeply
about whether their gemfile.lock
is changed according to git or not,
it turned out, so, we thought we were being really smart,
and we specifically wrote the bundled with feature
to only change the gemfile.lock when you installed new gems,
so we thought, "This is totally fine,
it's only gonna change the lock
if you're also changing a gem or adding a gem or whatever,
it'll be cool."
Turns out, (laughs)
spring, the command that ships with rails by default
and runs copies of rails in the background
waiting for you to want them to do things,
well, spring actually runs bundle install
I will never think that I am as smart as I thought I was
again, basically, is the summary of that.
So, we released a later version of 10.6
that actually has code just to work around spring
and says "Well, if you run, even if you run bundle install,
we can't assume that you actually mean it
because it could just be spring doing it automatically
and so we won't change your lock file
unless you actually changed a gem, and then we'll add it.
So that's- that's what wound up happening.
And so why it exists, it's because
we want to do things like,
well I guess actually, as to why it exists,
it's because we totally screwed up in Bundler 1.0
and didn't put it in, and realized approximately ten minutes
after we released Bundler 1.0 five years ago
that it should have been in the lock file the whole time.
Unfortunately, Bundler 1.0 had a bug
that meant that if we added it to the lock file,
Bundler 1.0 would throw an exception.
(André and audience members laugh)
Five years later, no one uses Bundler 1.0 anymore,
and we can add it.
So, the question was, who owns Bundler
and how is that determined?
The answer is...
a lot of people.
More or less, everyone - hm, how to put this.
So, Bundler the project is licensed to MIT,
which means you can do whatever you want with this,
as long as you don't claim that you made it yourself.
At various times, people have worked on it
while employees at Engine Yard,
while not employees anywhere at all,
while lots of other things as well.
Ultimately, it - the project only works
because everyone who submits code to Bundler
is implicitly agreeing to license their submission MIT
along with everything else that's in Bundler
so everyone can keep using it.
As for ownership, it depends on what you mean
(audience member responds inaudibly)
Oh, like who's allowed to merge pull requests.
The Bundler core team and Bundler contributors team,
which roughly means anyone who's had,
probably two pull requests merged in the past
gets the ability to review code and merge pull requests,
we have a merge bot that tries merging
to make sure that it's actually possible to merge,
and then runs all of the tests after merging
to make sure that all of the tests still pass,
and then actually commits that.
And I think just the core team right now
has the ability to trigger the merge bot.
So the question was "How is unifying Bundler
and RubyGems coming along?"
The answer is we are making progress.
Until Ruby Together has more money,
it will continue to be very slow.
The progress we've made so far is that
RubyGems and Bundler now share a dependency resolver,
which is super great.
At one point, they had two completely different
implementations of dependency resolution,
which meant that sometimes it was really confusing
because RubyGems tried to install this version
and Bundler tried to install that version
and why don't they agree?
So that's the biggest thing that's unified right now.
And ultimately, a lot of the code in Bundler
is actually just calling out to code in RubyGems,
so I would say that today, now that the resolvers
are the same code, the overlap is probably around 40%.
We'll keep making progress.
Okay, so Erik, the maintainer of RubyGems,
just said that RubyGems is gaining
more Bundler-like features to make them more similar
so that one day they can be the same thing.
That's ultimately the goal, it would be nice
if they were the same thing.
Oh, you're right, red light.
Okay, I'm happy to talk to anyone
who has questions afterwards, but we're out of time